Dr Julius (52) was educated at Iowa State University and at University of California where she read economics. She is a non-executive director of the Court of the Bank of England, having been a Member of the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee from its formation in 1997 until June 2001. She is also a non-executive director of Lloyds TSB and Serco. Over the last year she has chaired the Government's Banking Services Consumer Codes Review Group.
After receiving her Ph.D., Dr Julius began her career as a project economist with the World Bank in Washington, where her work included oil and gas projects in a number of Asian and African countries. From 1986 until 1997 she held a succession of posts as a senior manager and economic adviser in a range of major international organisations including British Airways, Royal Dutch Shell Group and The Royal Institute of International Affairs.